Visual Studio and .NET Framework Glossary
This glossary defines key terms of Visual Studio 2008 and the .NET Framework.
.NET Compact Framework
A hardware-independent environment for running programs on resource-constrained computing devices. It inherits the full .NET Framework architecture of the common language runtime, supports a subset of the .NET Framework class library, and contains classes designed exclusively for the .NET Compact Framework. Supported devices include personal data assistants (PDAs) (such as the Pocket PC), mobile phones, set-top boxes, automotive computing devices, and custom-designed embedded devices built with the Microsoft Windows CE.NET operating system.
An integral Windows component that supports building, deploying, and running the next generation of applications and Web services. It provides a highly productive, standards-based, multilanguage environment for integrating existing investments with next generation applications and services, as well as the agility to solve the challenges of deployment and operation of Internet-scale applications. The .NET Framework consists of three main parts: the common language runtime, a hierarchical set of unified class libraries, and a componentized version of ASP called ASP.NET. See also: ASP.NET, common language runtime, .NET Framework class library.
.NET Framework class library
A library of classes, interfaces, and value types that are included in the .NET Framework SDK. This library provides access to system functionality and is designed to be the foundation on which .NET Framework applications, components, and controls are built. See also: class, CLS-compliant, Common Language Specification, interface, value type.
.NET Framework data provider
A component of ADO.NET that provides access to data from a relational data source. A .NET Framework data provider contains classes to connect to a data source, execute commands at the data source, and return query results from the data source, including the ability to execute commands within transactions. A .NET Framework data provider also contains classes to populate a DataSet with results from a data source and propagate changes in a DataSet back to the data source.
A resource editor that allows you to add, delete, change, or browse the shortcut key assignments for your project.
access control list (ACL)
A list that specifies the rules for access to a particular resource. Microsoft Windows NT implements user-based ACLs, which specify the resources available to a particular user.
A customizable document-level task pane in Microsoft Office Word and Microsoft Office Excel.
Active Template Library
A collection of C++ templates to help users create Component Object Model (COM) objects.
A control, such as a check box or button that offers options to users or runs macros or scripts that automate a task. You can write macros for the control in Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications or scripts in Microsoft Script Editor.
In the .NET Framework add-in programming model, the add-in application assembly that communicates with a host application over a communication pipeline. See also: host, pipeline.
In the .NET Framework add-in programming model, an assembly that contains interfaces or abstract base classes, and represents the add-in’s view of the methods and types used to communicate with a host. See also: add-in, host.
In the .NET Framework add-in programming model, an assembly that contains one or more classes, and converts data to and from the add-in view and the contract. Depending on the direction of the call, the adapter is either converting from a view to a contract or from a contract to a view. See also: add-in, contract.
The suite of data access technologies included in the .NET Framework class libraries that provide access to relational data and XML. ADO.NET consists of classes that make up the DataSet (such as tables, rows, columns, relations, and so on), .NET Framework data providers, and custom type definitions (such as SqlTypes for SQL Server).
A special glyph on the design surface. Adorners are usually attached to a target control, and they give the user a graphical means of adjusting the control’s properties.
A function called by MFC applications after they explicitly linked to a DLL module when that module is no longer needed. This function decrements the module’s reference count and, if the reference count is zero, unmaps it from the address space of the process.
A library that is used by MFC applications when linking to an extension DLL.
In WMI, a type of event that is generated after a series of events of another type have occurred. An aggregate event is used to represent a series of events to avoid flooding the event consumer. See also: event, event consumer.
In GDI+, the portion of pixel color data reserved for transparency information.
The way of determining the edges of a parent control to which a control is bound and how a control is resized with its parent. Anchoring and docking are mutually exclusive. See also: docking.
A code block that is passed as a parameter to a delegate.
A class type whose name is generated by the compiler and that inherits directly from Object. Members of an anonymous type are properties that are inferred from the object initializer that creates instances of the type.
The directory where the .exe file that loads into the initial or default application domain is located. If you create your own application domain, the application base is the location you specify in the AppDomainSetup class. See also: application domain.
Application domain (AppDomain)
A boundary that the common language runtime establishes around objects created within the same application scope (that is, anywhere along the sequence of object activations beginning with the application entry point). Application domains help isolate objects created in one application from those created in other applications so that run-time behavior is predictable. Multiple application domains can exist in a single process.
The file used in ClickOnce applications that describes the application and all of its constituent files.
In ASP.NET, built-in functionality for common application tasks. ASP.NET includes application services for authentication (ASP.NET membership), persistent per-user information (profile properties), and more.
In ASP.NET, a variable store that is created on the server for the current application and is shared by all users. Application state is typically used to store information that is used for all users, such as application-wide settings.
A supplemental program that modifies or adds functionality to an existing program or application. The modifications are available to the application at all times.
A set of technologies in the Microsoft .NET Framework for building Web applications and Web services. ASP.NET pages execute on the server and generate markup (such as HTML, WML, or XML) that is sent to a desktop or mobile browser. ASP.NET pages use a compiled, event-driven programming model that improves performance and enables the separation of application logic and user interface. ASP.NET pages and Web services files created using ASP.NET contain server-side (rather than client-side) logic written in Visual Basic, C#, or any .NET-compatible language. Web applications and Web services take advantage of the features of the common language runtime, such as type safety, inheritance, language interoperability, versioning, and integrated security.
ASP.NET application services database
In ASP.NET, a database that stores the data for several ASP.NET application services, including membership, Web Parts personalization, roles, and profiles. The database can be a local database in the Web site’s App_Data folder or a SQL Server or other database, depending on how the site is configured.
ASP.NET mobile controls
A set of ASP.NET controls designed for mobile Web applications. ASP.NET mobile controls extend their ASP.NET server control counterparts.
ASP.NET mobile Web Forms
Extensions to ASP.NET Web Forms that target mobile devices from cell phones to Pocket PCs.
A component of an ASP.NET application.
ASP.NET server control
A server-side component that encapsulates user interface and related functionality. An ASP.NET server control derives directly or indirectly from the System.Web.UI.Control class. The superset of ASP.NET server controls includes Web server controls, HTML server controls, and ASP.NET mobile controls. The page syntax for an ASP.NET server control includes a runat=”server” attribute on the control’s tag. See also: HTML server control, validation server controls, Web server control.
ASP.NET Web application
An application that processes HTTP requests (Web requests) and executes on top of ASP.NET. An ASP.NET Web application can include ASP.NET pages, Web services, HTTP handlers, and HTTP modules.
A collection of one or more files that are versioned and deployed as a unit. An assembly is the primary building block of a .NET Framework application. All managed types and resources are contained within an assembly and are marked either as accessible only within the assembly or as accessible from code in other assemblies. Assemblies also play a key role in security. The code access security system uses information about the assembly to determine the set of permissions that code in the assembly is granted. See also: private assembly, shared assembly.
A code cache used for side-by-side storage of assemblies. There are two parts to the cache: the global assembly cache contains assemblies that are explicitly installed to be shared among many applications on the computer; the download cache stores code downloaded from Internet or intranet sites, isolated to the application that caused the download so that code downloaded on behalf of one application or page does not impact other applications. See also: global assembly cache.
An integral part of every assembly that renders the assembly self-describing. The assembly manifest contains the assembly’s metadata. The manifest establishes the assembly identity, specifies the files that make up the assembly implementation, specifies the types and resources that make up the assembly, itemizes the compile-time dependencies on other assemblies, and specifies the set of permissions required for the assembly to run properly. This information is used at run time to resolve references, enforce version binding policy, and validate the integrity of loaded assemblies. The self-describing nature of assemblies also helps makes zero-impact install and XCOPY deployment feasible. See also: assembly, metadata.
See other term: assembly manifest
In .NET Framework security, helps to make sure that a method has access to a particular resource even if the method’s callers do not have the required permission. During a stack walk, if a stack frame asserting the required permission is encountered, a security check for that permission will succeed. Assertions can create security holes and should be used only with extreme caution.
In the ADO.NET Entity Framework, the definition of a relationship between entity types.
In WMI, a class that describes a relationship between two classes or between instances of two classes. The properties of an association class include pointers, or references, to the two classes or instances. The Association qualifier is attached to every association class for identification.
In Class Designer, a line that shows that two types are related. The line represents a field or property and leads from the type that contains the member to the field or propertyâ€&™s type.
In the ADO.NET Entity Framework, a logical container for instances of associations of the same type.
A WMI Query Language statement that supports the traversal of associations programmatically by retrieving all endpoint instances that are associated with a particular source instance. See also: GROUP, HAVING, ISA, REFERENCES OF, SELECT, WHERE, WITHIN.
asynchronous communication layer
In ASP.NET, the layer of AJAX functionality that takes care of communication between the browser and the server.
A method call that returns to the caller immediately regardless of whether processing has completed. The results of processing are returned through another call on another thread. Asynchronous methods free the caller from having to wait until processing has finished. See also: semisynchronous method.
In ASP.NET, the process of sending Web page data (plus view state and other necessary metadata) from the browser to the server without a complete postback and without blocking the user from continuing to work in the page. Asynchronous postbacks are an important feature of AJAX technology.
See Active Template Library.
A descriptive declaration that can be applied to programming elements such as types, fields, methods, and properties. Attributes are saved with the metadata of a .NET Framework file and can be used to describe code to the common language runtime or to affect application behavior at run time.
In .NET Framework security, the process of discovering and verifying the identity of a principal by examining the user’s credentials against some authority. See also: principal.
In .NET Framework security, the process of limiting access rights by granting or denying specific permissions to an authenticated identity or principal. See also: authentication, principal.
In ASP.NET server controls, a setting that causes the control to submit the page when the user interacts with the control. (By default, only button controls cause a postback.) For example, if a DropDownList control is set to perform autopostback, the page is submitted as soon as a user selects an item from the list. See also: ASP.NET server control.
The size and location of an object.
The conversion of a value type instance to an object, which implies that the instance will carry full type information at run time and will be allocated in the heap. The Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) instruction set’s box instruction converts a value type to an object by making a copy of the value type and embedding it in a newly allocated object. See also: Microsoft intermediate language, unboxing, value type.
The recorded text output of a Visual Studio build, often indicating command lines issued and status of each step in the build process. For a C++ build, this file is called BuildLog.htm.
A programming language designed for building enterprise applications that run on the .NET Framework. C#, which is an evolution of C and C++, is type safe and object oriented. Because it is compiled as managed code, it benefits from the services of the common language runtime, such as language interoperability, security, and garbage collection.
A Web page in WML. WML devices can either display the contents of a card on a single screen or, when necessary, provide scroll bars so that the entire contents of the card can be viewed. Developers do not need to worry about manipulating cards or decks (groups of cards) because ASP.NET mobile controls handle formatting (including pagination) for targeted devices. See also: deck, WML.
A list of Web Parts controls (or other Web server, custom server, or user controls), created by a System.Web.UI.WebControls.CatalogPart control, that users can add to a Web Parts page. See also: Web Parts controls, Web Parts page.
See other term: COM callable wrapper (CCW)
The double angle bracket denoting an overflow button control.
The common user interface elements rendered around each Web Parts part control within a given zone. The chrome for a part control includes a border, a title bar, and the icons, title text, and verbs menu that appear within the title bar. The appearance of the chrome is set at the zone level and applies to all part controls in a zone. The rendering of chrome and of individual System.Web.UI.WebControls.WebParts.WebPart controls is handled by the System.Web.UI.WebControls.WebParts.WebPartChrome class. See also: part controls, Web Parts controls, zone.
A markup language used on some cell phones. cHTML is a subset of HTML with additional tags to enhance mobile functionality.
See other term: Common Information Model (CIM)
CIM Object Manager
A component in the WMI infrastructure that handles the interaction between management applications and providers. The CIM Object Manager supports services such as event notification, remote access, and query processing. The CIM Object Manager also grants access to the WMI repository.
In WMI, a collection of class definitions used to represent managed objects that occur in every management environment. See also: schema.
A reference type that encapsulates data (constants and fields) and behavior (methods, properties, indexers, events, operators, instance constructors, static constructors, and destructors), and can contain nested types. Class types support inheritance, a mechanism whereby a derived class can extend and specialize a base class. See also: encapsulation, indexer, property, reference type.
A visual design environment that enables you to visualize the structure of classes and other types. The Class Designer also enables you to edit the source code of classes and types through these visual representations.
In IIS 7.0, a configuration in which request processing emulates the model used in IIS 6.0. In Classic mode, IIS receives requests and dispatches them to ISAPI components according to mapped file name extensions. IIS and the process that handles the request run as separate processes. For example, requests for ASP.NET resources are dispatched to the aspnet_isapi.dll component.
A deployment method that enables you to publish Windows-based applications to a Web server or network file share for simplified installation.
client application services
In Windows-based applications, built-in functionality to access ASP.NET application services for common application tasks, including remote login, roles, and application settings.
The portion of a Windows-based application excluding toolbars, menus, and status bars.
The coordinates in which the X and Y screen position are specified relative to the upper-left corner of the application, which is regarded as the origin (0,0). In Right-to-Left (RTL) applications, the upper-right corner is the origin. See also: right to left (RTL).
The namespace for STL/CLR containers, iterators, and algorithms
The area of the screen or page that enables graphics output.
closed generic type
A constructed generic type that has no unspecified generic type parameters, either of its own or of any enclosing types or methods. Closed generic types can be instantiated. See also: constructed type, generics, generic type, generic type parameter, open generic type.
See other term: common language runtime
See other term: Common Language Specification (CLS)
Code that publicly exposes only language features that are in the Common Language Specification. CLS compliance can apply to classes, interfaces, components, and tools. See also: Common Language Specification (CLS).
code access security
A mechanism provided by the common language runtime whereby managed code is granted permissions by security policy and these permissions are enforced, helping to limit the operations that the code will be allowed to perform.
A class that is accessed by an .aspx file, but resides in a separate file (such as a .dll or .cs file). For example, you can write a code-behind class that creates an ASP.NET custom server control, contains code that is called from an .aspx file, but does not reside within the .aspx file.
A code file containing the page class that implements the program logic of a Web Forms or ASP.NET mobile Web Forms application.
See other term: code-behind file
COM callable wrapper (CCW)
A proxy object generated by the common language runtime so that existing COM applications can use managed classes, including .NET Framework classes, transparently.
A service that enables .NET Framework objects to communicate with COM objects.
Common Information Model (CIM)
In WMI, the model that describes how to represent real-world managed objects. CIM uses an object-oriented paradigm, where managed objects are modeled using the concepts of classes and instances. The CIM is divided into the metamodel and the standard schema. The metamodel describes what types of entities make up the schema. It also defines how these entities can be combined into objects that represent real-world devices.
common language runtime
The engine at the core of managed code execution. The runtime supplies managed code with services such as cross-language integration, code access security, object lifetime management, and debugging and profiling support.
common language runtime host
An unmanaged application that uses a set of APIs, called the hosting interfaces, to integrate managed code into the application. Common language runtime hosts often require a high degree of customization over the runtime that is loaded into the process. The hosting interfaces allow common language runtime hosts to specify settings that configure the garbage collector, select the appropriate build for their environment (server versus workstation), and so on. Common language runtime hosts often support an extensibility model that allows the end user to dynamically add new pieces of functionality, such as a new control or a user-written function. These extensions are typically isolated from each other in the process using application domains and custom security settings. Examples of common language runtime hosts include ASP.NET, Microsoft Internet Explorer, and a host to run executables launched from the Windows Shell. See also: application domain, common language runtime, managed code.
Common Language Specification (CLS)
A subset of language features supported by the common language runtime, including features common to several object-oriented programming languages. CLS-compliant components and tools are guaranteed to interoperate with other CLS-compliant components and tools. See also: CLS-compliant.
common object file format (COFF)
A format in 32-bit programming for executable (image) and object files that is portable across platforms. The Microsoft implementation is called portable executable (PE) file format. See also: portable executable (PE) file.
common type system
The specification that determines how the common language runtime defines, uses, and manages types.
See other term: pipeline
A filter that compares a device capability name to a value. See also: device capabilities.
A custom server control that consists of a custom collection of other server controls as child controls.
An abstract specification for the entity types, associations, entity containers, entity sets, and association sets in the domain of an application built on the ADO.NET Entity Framework.
conceptual schema definition language (CSDL)
An XML-based language that is used to define the entity types, associations, entity containers, entity sets, and association sets of a conceptual model.
An XML file with the .config extension that contains option settings for an application or Web site. Common configuration files include Machine.config and Web.config.
See other term: Web Parts connection
A System.Web.UI.WebControls.WebParts.ConnectionPoint object associated with the provider and consumer controls that participate in Web Parts connections. A connection point manages the exchange of data between the controls. Providers and consumers each have their own connection points. See also: consumer, provider, Web Parts connection.
See other term: generic type parameter constraint
constructed generic type
A generic type whose generic type parameters have been specified. A constructed type or method can be an open generic type if some of its type arguments are type parameters of enclosing types or methods, or a closed generic type if all of its type arguments are real types. See also: closed generic type, generics, generic type, generic type argument, generic type parameter, open generic type.
See other term: constructed generic type
In a Web Parts connection, a server control that receives data from a provider control and processes or displays it. A consumer can be any type of server control, but must be designed to function as a consumer. A consumer must have a special callback method marked with a ConnectionConsumerAttribute attribute in the source code. This method receives data from the provider in the form of an interface instance. See also: connection point, provider, Web Parts connection.
See other term: naming container
A type of ASP.NET mobile control that contains other controls and provides visual groupings of controls and content.
A control that defines an area of a Microsoft Office Word document in which text and specific types of data can be displayed, or in which user input is restricted.
In ASP.NET, a Web page that is configured to be merged with a master page to create a complete page. See also: master page.
An ordered sequence of properties that define an environment for the objects that resides inside it. Contexts are created during the activation process for objects that are configured to require certain automatic services such as synchronization, transactions, just-in-time activation, security, and so on. Multiple objects can live inside a context.
The implicit state, and code to manage that state, held on behalf of an object instance. For example, the transaction context property holds the transaction identifier of the transaction that the object is participating in.
The behavior and state that a class provides, which is matched with what a client of that class can expect to hold. A contract is expressed partly by the signatures for all public fields, methods, properties, and events of that class. This is augmented by a description (usually in simple descriptive text) of what each field or property represents, together with what each method does. In the .NET Framework add-in programming model, a non-versioning interface that defines the methods and specifies the data types for transferring data over the communication pipeline between the host and the add-in. The contract is in the middle of the communication pipeline between the add-in and the host. The contract assembly is loaded into the application domains of both the add-in and the host. See also: add-in, host, pipeline.
A field in an ASP.NET Web page that stores the current property settings for server controls on the page. Control state is used to recreate the page and reestablish previous settings on each postback. See also: ASP.NET page, ASP.NET server control, postback, view state.
In ASP.NET Web pages, the process of submitting a page to a specified target page in contrast to submitting the page to itself. See also: postback.
See other term: conceptual schema definition language
See other term: common type system
custom attribute (Attribute)
A class used to represent custom metadata. See also: attribute.
custom build rule
A build rule defined by the user, typically to call a tool that is not part of the normal Visual Studio build process.
A control authored by a user or a third-party software vendor that does not belong to the .NET Framework class library. This is a generic term that also includes user controls. Custom server controls are used in Web Forms (ASP.NET pages). Custom client controls are used in Windows Forms applications.
The process or method for configuring controls on a form or Web page to fetch data from or write data to a data source such as a database, XML file, and so on.
data source control
An object that can be added to an ASP.NET Web page that encapsulates the logic required to connect to a data source, such as a database or XML file, and that can execute queries or other data-access commands. A data source control can in turn provide data to other controls on that page.
A set of visual tools for creating and editing typed datasets and the individual items that make up datasets.
A set of XML files on your desktop computer that contains information about the platforms, devices, emulators, and packages that are installed on the computer. The Datastore is part of core connectivity and is installed with Microsoft Visual Studio or Microsoft Platform Builder. The contents of the Datastore are modified whenever you install an SDK that is based on Windows CE such as Windows Mobile.
In multithreading, a condition in which each of two threads holds a lock that the other thread needs in order to proceed. See also: synchronization.
A group of one or more cards. See also: card.
declarative security check
Declarative security information in metadata. Developers can use such declarations, which are usually written as custom attributes, to invoke several kinds of security functionality: require permissions to bind reference to the code, require permissions to derive a type, demand that callers have certain permissions, and so on. See also: imperative security check.
A provider hosted in a separate process from WMI. Decoupled providers are the recommended way to instrument an application because the provider can control its own lifetime instead of being launched every time a user accesses the provider through WMI. See also: provider.
default unit system
The process that determines when a Web page control should appear on a new page, based on a mobile device’s characteristics. The default unit system is based on one line equaling 100 units, as indicated by the DefaultWeight field in the ControlPager class.
The characteristic of a LINQ query that it is not executed until it is iterated through a call to its IEnumerator.MoveNext method. The method call may occur directly, indirectly through a foreach (C#) or For Each (Visual Basic) statement, or through a call to a Standard Query Operator method such as Max, Average, Count, ToArray, or ToList.
In the .NET Framework, a reference to a function. A delegate is equivalent to a function pointer. See also: reference type.
In WMI, a security impersonation level used to allow remote access involving more than one network hop.
A filter that uses a custom method to evaluate the specified data.
By denying a permission, a method can prevent its callers from exercising the privilege represented by that permission. If a method on the call stack denies permission A, a stack walk checking for permission A will fail unless a valid assertion is found on the stack between the method doing the denial and the method that initiated the check for permission A. See also: assertion.
denial of service attack
An attack on a server exposed to the Internet that consumes excessive time, memory, or other resources. The attack intends to prevent rightful access to resources.
The file used in ClickOnce applications that describes the current version of this deployment, and whether it should be installed on the client computer or only run online.
An ASP.NET page framework class that adapts the behavior of mobile pages and controls based on the target device.
The set of device functionality available through the HasCapability method or the <Choice> element.
The coordinates used by the physical device being drawn on, such as a screen or sheet of paper.
The characteristics of a device available through the MobileCapabilities class and the DeviceSpecific control.
A section of the Web.config file where you specify values for specific mobile devices. These values are used to create device-specific content.
A way of accessing properties and methods supplied by WMI in a script as if they were automation properties and methods of an object instance.
A column in a database table that contains a value that determines which class any given record belongs to.
The different display states that a Web Parts page can enter, which enable users to modify a page in specified ways. The states that ship with the Web Parts control set are: catalog, connect, design, edit, and browse. The default or normal mode for a Web page is browse. Developers can extend this display mode feature by adding custom display modes, which requires extending the WebPartManager class. See also: Web Parts control set, Web Parts page.
The way of determining which control borders are set flush with their parent control and how a control is resized with its parent. Docking and anchoring are mutually exclusive. See also: anchoring.
A supplemental program that modifies or adds functionality to an existing program or application, but only when a specific document is open.
See other term: assembly cache
A Web Parts control that is persisted in a personalization store; it does not appear in the declarative markup of an .aspx page. After it has been added to a page, the WebPartManager control automatically creates an instance of the control from the personalization store on future requests. See also: Web Parts controls.
An object initializer that is defined within a collection initializer.
The files used by an application that are stored in binary format in the compiled application.
The ability of an object to hide its internal data and methods, making only the intended parts of the object programmatically accessible.
In the ASO.NET Entity Framework, a participating entity in an association.
In the ADO.NET Entity Framework, a concept in the domain of an application from which a data type is defined.
In the ADO.NET Entity Framework, specifies entity sets and association sets that will be implemented in a specified namespace.
Entity Data Model
A data model for defining application data as sets of entities and relationships to which common language runtime types and storage structures can be mapped.
A set of technologies that supports the development of data-oriented software applications by enabling developers to work with conceptual models that are mapped to logical schemas in data sources.
In the ADO.NET Entity Framework, a logical container for entities of a given type and its subtypes, mapped to tables in a database.
A storage-independent, SQL-like language that works directly with conceptual entity schemas and that supports entity data model features such as inheritance and relationships.
In the ADO.NET Entity Framework, a specification for a data type that includes a named set of properties and represents a top-level item in a data model.
A list of named constants.
In WMI, an occurrence of a change to static or dynamic data related to a managed object.
In WMI, a recipient of notifications that report an occurrence of an event. An event consumer is either temporary or permanent. See also: event, permanent consumer, temporary consumer.
event consumer provider
In WMI, a provider that determines which permanent event consumer handles a given event. See also: event, permanent consumer.
In WMI, a filter that registers to receive notification of a specific type of event. See also: event.
A WMI provider that monitors a source of events and notifies WMI when events occur. See also: event.
A WMI Query Language statement that event consumers use to register to receive notification of specific events. An event provider uses an event query to register to generate notifications of specific events. See also: event, event consumer.
Event-based Asyncyhronous Pattern
A design pattern that uses events to expose asynchronous features of a class.
The properties of code, such as a digital signature or the zone or site of its origin, that are used by security policy to grant permissions to code. See also: security policy.
A Visual Studio debugging tool that provides information about the cause of an exception in a Visual Basic or Visual C# program.
A file in portable executable (PE) file format that can be loaded into memory and executed by the operating system loader. It can be either an .exe or a .dll file. In the .NET context, a PE file must be translated by the common language runtime into native code before it can be executed by the operating system. See also: portable executable (PE) file.
explicit interface implementation
A class or structure member that is accessible only through the interface that the class or structure implements.
Extensible Application Markup Language (XAML)
A markup language for declarative application programming. XAML simplifies creating a UI for the Windows Presentation Foundation programming model. You can create visible UI elements in the declarative XAML markup, and then separate the UI definition from the run-time logic by using code-behind files, joined to the markup through partial class definitions.
Extensible Markup Language (XML)
A subset of Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) that is optimized for delivery over the Web. XML provides a uniform method for describing and exchanging structured data that is independent of applications or vendors.
A static method that can be invoked by using instance method syntax. In effect, extension methods make it possible to extend existing types and constructed types with additional methods.
A style in an external style sheet. See also: external style sheet.
external style sheet
A style sheet defined in a user control in an .ascx file. See also: external style.
A member that represents a variable associated with an object or class.
A WMI-defined flag that describes the behavior of a qualifier. WMI flavors describe rules that specify whether a qualifier can be propagated to derived classes and instances and whether a derived class or instance can override the qualifier’s original value.
A way of designing a form in which all elements are positioned one immediately after the other.
A key in a database table that comes from another table. This key refers to a specific key, usually the primary key, in the table being used.
A customizable extension to Microsoft Office Outlook forms.
See other term: .NET Framework
A function that processes call after they explicitly linked to a DLL module when that module is no longer needed. This function decrements the module’s reference count and, if the reference count is zero, unmaps it from the address space of the process.
An assembly that is permitted to access another assembly’s types and members.
See other term: global assembly cache
The process of adjusting an image input signal to correctly display on a particular device.
garbage collection (GC)
The process of transitively tracing through all pointers to actively used objects in order to locate all objects that can be referenced, and then arranging to reuse any heap memory that was not found during this trace. The common language runtime garbage collector also compacts the memory that is in use to reduce the working space needed for the heap. See also: heap.
The portion of the Microsoft Windows XP operating system that provides two-dimensional vector graphics, imaging, and typography. GDI+ improves on GDI (the graphics device interface included with earlier versions of Windows) by adding new features and optimizing existing features. The GDI+ managed class interface (a set of wrappers) is part of the Microsoft .NET Framework.
See other term: generic type
See other term: generic type
A method whose definition has placeholders, called generic type parameters, for one or more types used in the body of the method or as the types of the method’s parameters. A user specifies real types (generic type arguments) for the type parameters when calling the generic method. Note that a method is not generic just because it is declared in a generic type. A method is generic only if it has type parameters of its own. See also: generics, generic type, generic type argument, generic type parameter.
A class, interface, or structure whose definition has placeholders, called generic type parameters, for one or more types used in its member definitions (for example, as method parameter types). A user specifies real types (generic type arguments) for the type parameters when creating an instance of the generic type. See also: constructed generic type, generics, generic type argument, generic type parameter.
generic type argument
The type or types that the user specifies when creating instances of a generic type or when calling a generic method. See also: generics, generic method, generic type.
generic type definition
The definition of a generic type, in which type parameters act as placeholders for types that the user supplies when creating instances to use. These instances are not instances of the generic type definition, but of the constructed type formed by specifying type arguments. See also: constructed generic type, generics, generic type, generic type argument, generic type parameter.
generic type parameter
In a generic type definition, a placeholder for a type that the user specifies (generic type argument) when creating instances of a generic type or when calling a generic method. See also: generics, generic method, generic type, generic type argument.
generic type parameter constraint
A way of limiting the types that can be specified for a generic type parameter. For example, types substituted for the type parameter can be constrained to inherit from a particular type, to implement a specific interface, to provide a parameterless constructor, and so on. See also: generics, generic type parameter.
generic type parameter list
The list of generic type parameters of a generic type or method, specified as part of the definition of the generic type or generic method. See also: generics, generic method, generic type, generic type parameter.
A feature of the common language runtime, conceptually similar to C++ templates, that allows classes, structures, interfaces, and methods to have placeholders (generic type parameters) for the data types they store and manipulate. Generic types are a form of parameterized types. See also: generic type, generic type parameter, parameterized type.
global assembly cache (GAC)
A machine-wide code cache that stores assemblies specifically installed to be shared by many applications on the computer. Applications deployed in the global assembly cache must have a strong name. See also: assembly cache, strong name.
The process of designing and developing a software product to function in multiple locales. Globalization involves identifying the locales that must be supported, designing features that support those locales, and writing code that functions equally well in any of the supported locales. See also: locale, localization.
The physical representation of a character in a given font. Characters might have many glyphs, with each font on a system potentially defining a different glyph for that character.
The permissions, determined by security policy, that code will be given, allowing it access to resources and giving it identity. The granted permissions are determined by both the requested permissions and what is allowed by the security policy configuration. See also: security policy.
A clause in the WQL SELECT statement used to request that multiple notifications be combined into single instances of an aggregate event. See also: aggregate event. ASSOCIATORS OF, HAVING, ISA, REFERENCES OF, SELECT, WHERE, WITHIN.
A component registered with ASP.NET (typically with an .axd extension) that produces Web output dynamically.
A clause in the WQL SELECT statement that is used to set a minimum limit on the number of discrete events that produce an aggregate event, which reduces overall event traffic. See also: aggregate event, ASSOCIATORS OF, GROUP, ISA, REFERENCES OF, SELECT, WHERE, WITHIN.
A portion of memory reserved for a program to use for the temporary storage of data structures whose existence or size cannot be determined until the program is running.
In the .NET Framework add-in programming model, the host application assembly that communicates with an add-in over the communication pipeline. See also: add-in, pipeline.
An application that has some sort of customization, such as an application-level add-in or a document-level customization, for which the application acts as a host.
An object that is native to a host application (such as Microsoft Office Word or Microsoft Office Excel) to which data binding and events have been added. Examples of host controls include Bookmark controls and ListObject controls.
An object that is native to a host application (such as Microsoft Office Word or Microsoft Office Excel) to which you can add host controls. Examples of host items include Document and Worksheet.
host view of the add-in
In the .NET Framework add-in programming model, an assembly that contains interfaces or abstract base classes, and represents the host’s view of the methods and types used to communicate with an add-in. See also: add-in, host.
In the .NET Framework add-in programming model, an assembly that contains one or more classes, and converts data to and from the host view of the add-in and the contract. Depending on the direction of the call, the adapter is either converting from a view to a contract or from a contract to a view. See also: add-in, contract, host view of the add-in.
HTML server control
An ASP.NET server control that belongs to the System.Web.UI.HtmlControls namespace. An HTML server control maps directly to an HTML element and is declared on an ASP.NET page as an HTML element marked by a runat=”server” attribute, for example <button runat=”server” />. In contrast to Web server controls, HTML server controls do not have an asp tag prefix. See also: ASP.NET server control, validation server controls, Web server control.
See other term: handler (HTTP)
See other term: module (HTTP)
The short form of the term “image encoder/decoder”. Software or an algorithm that converts images to a specified file format (encoder) or from file format to displayed image (decoder).
Any query that returns either a singleton value such as System.Int32 or a concrete collection of objects. Examples are queries that end with calls to System.Linq.Enumerable.Max and System.Linq.Enumerable.ToList.
imperative security check
A security check that occurs when a security method is called within the code. This type of check can be data-driven and can be isolated to a single location within an object or method. For example, if the name of a file is known only at run time, an imperative security check can be invoked by passing the file name as a parameter to a security method. See also: declarative security check.
implicitly typed local variable
A local variable whose type is inferred from the expression that initializes it.
A zero-based number used to designate an item in a series of items. For example, some .NET Framework methods and properties use an index to designate a character in a string or an element in an array or collection.
A class member that permits instances of a class or structure to be accessed in the same way as arrays. Indexers are similar to properties, except that the get and set accessor methods of indexers take parameters, while property accessor methods do not. See also: class, property, structure.
In a program, a function whose code is inserted completely within the code of the calling function.
A mechanism used to report data about the state of system hardware and software. WMI creates instrumentation by modeling the system using classes based on the Common Information Model (CIM). WMI in the .NET Framework creates instrumented classes by adding attributes. See also: Common Information Model.
In IIS 7.0, a configuration in which IIS and ASP.NET share request processing, based on a pipeline that supports both components created with the .NET Framework and native components. In Integrated mode, ASP.NET components such as HTTP modules can be used to manage all Web requests, including those for non-ASP.NET resources.
In IIS 7.0, a unified request processing pipeline that is running in Integrated mode. In the integrated pipeline, custom modules and handlers in a Web application can be configured to subscribe to notifications for all requests to the application, not just requests for ASP.NET-specific resources.
A Microsoft technology that allows you to analyze your source code by showing class definitions and comments when you hover your cursor over a function. IntelliSense can also complete function names when you type them in the IDE.
A reference type that defines a contract. Other types implement an interface to guarantee that they support certain operations. The interface specifies the members that must be supplied by classes or other interfaces that implement it. Like classes, interfaces can contain methods, properties, indexers, and events as members. See also: contract, indexer, property, reference type.
See other term: Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL)
A style in an internal style sheet. See also: internal style sheet.
internal style sheet
A style sheet contained in an ASP.NET mobile Web Forms page.
An assembly containing definitions of COM types described in metadata. An interop assembly is typically produced by the Type Library Importer (Tlbimp.exe). See also: assembly, primary interop assembly.
An event that WMI provides, which is a notification of a change in the standard WMI data model.
An operator in the WQL WHERE clause that is used to retrieve instances from a class hierarchy. See also: ASSOCIATORS OF, GROUP, HAVING, REFERENCES OF, SELECT, WHERE, WITHIN.
An acronym for “just-in-time,” a phrase that describes an action that is taken only when it becomes necessary, such as just-in-time compilation or just-in-time object activation.
The compilation that converts Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) into machine code at the point when the code is required at run time. See also: Microsoft intermediate language.
An inline function in the Language-Integrated Query (LINQ) technology that uses the => operator to separate input parameters from the function body and can be converted at compile time to a delegate or an expression tree.
language-integrated query (LINQ)
A query syntax that defines a set of query operators that allow traversal, filter, and projection operations to be expressed in a direct, declarative way in any .NET-based programming language.
In left-to-right layout, the upper side of a vertical ToolStrip or the left side of a horizontal ToolStrip.
The time period that begins when an object is allocated in memory and ends when the garbage collector deletes the object from memory.
See other term: language-integrated query (LINQ)
A library that implements the functionality of the standard query operators for a specific kind of data source. A LINQ provider translates queries expressed in Visual Basic or C# into the native language of the data source. For example, LINQ to SQL is a LINQ provider for SQL Server databases that translates queries into dynamic SQL and marshalls the results into objects defined on the client computer.
LINQ to ADO.NET
A technology that enables you to query over any enumerable object in ADO.NET by using the LINQ programming model. LINQ to ADO.NET consists of two related LINQ technologies: LINQ to DataSet and LINQ to SQL.
LINQ to DataSet
A LINQ technology that makes it easier and faster to query over data cached in a DataSet object. The queries are expressed in the programming language itself and not as string literals embedded in the application code.
LINQ to Objects
The use of LINQ to query in-memory data such as arrays and lists.
LINQ to SQL
A LINQ technology that provides a run-time infrastructure for managing relational data as objects. In LINQ to SQL, the data model of a relational database is mapped to an object model expressed in the programming language of the developer.
LINQ to XML
An in-memory programming interface that enables you to work with XML from within the .NET Framework programming languages. You can query and modify a document, and then, after modifying it, you can save it to a file or serialize the result and send it over the Internet.
A function that processes call to explicitly link to a DLL. If successful, the function maps the specified DLL into the address space of the calling process and returns a handle to the DLL. This handle can be used with other functions for explicit linking. If the library is already linked, the reference count is increased. If linking to the library fails, LoadLibrary returns NULL.
A collection of rules and data specific to a language and a geographic area. Locales include information on sorting rules, date and time formatting, numeric and monetary conventions, and character classification. See also: globalization, localization.
The process of customizing or translating the separated data and resources needed for a specific region or language. See also: globalization, locale.
Code that is executed by the common language runtime environment rather than directly by the operating system. Managed code applications gain common language runtime services such as automatic garbage collection, runtime type checking and security support, and so on. These services help provide uniform platform- and language-independent behavior of managed-code applications. See also: unmanaged code.
managed code extensions
An application-level add-in or document-level customization. Generally, an extension to Microsoft Office that is created by using Visual Studio Tools for Office.
Objects whose lifetimes are managed by the common language runtime. The runtime automatically handles object layout and manages references to these objects, releasing them when they are no longer being used. See also: common language runtime, garbage collection.
Managed Object Format (MOF)
A language based on Interface Definition Language (IDL) that describes management information. The MOF syntax is a way to describe object definitions in textual form. The MOF Compiler processes a MOF file and adds the required object definitions to the CIM repository.
In WMI, an application or Windows 2000/Windows NT service that uses information originating from one or more managed objects in a managed environment. Management applications retrieve this information through calls to the CIM Object Manager API from the CIM Object Manager and from providers. See also: CIM Object Manager, provider.
See other term: assembly manifest
mapping specification language (MSL)
An XML-based language that is used to map items defined in a conceptual model to items in a storage model.
The space between a control and the other, adjoining controls on a form or page. Margin differs from padding, which is the space between the edges of a control and the control’s contents; for example, the text inside of a button.
The library that provides an easy and optimized way to marshal data between native and managed environments. This library is an alternative to more complex and less efficient approaches such as PInvoke.
A string of characters that constrain user input in a text control to certain input types. Masks are composed of characters from a mask language, which specifies which mask character allows which type of input. If the mask language defines the character “0” as allowing only numeric inputs, then the mask “00:00” would restrict the user to entering numbers in European time format.
A character used in a masked control when there is no user input to display.
In ASP.NET, a page that defines the layout for a set of pages. A master page can contain static text and controls that should appear on all pages. Master pages are merged at run time with content pages that define page-specific content. See also: content page.
media sense thread
The thread, or object within a process, that detects the presence of media.
In ASP.NET, an application feature that manages a store of user credentials for a Web site. Membership can be integrated with login controls or other ASP.NET authentication features to provide login security for your site.
Information that describes every element managed by the common language runtime: an assembly, loadable file, type, method, and so on. This can include information required for debugging and garbage collection, as well as security attributes, marshaling data, extended class and member definitions, version binding, and other information required by the runtime.
A class that represents the metadata runtime service component that provides support for retrieving metadata.
In WMI, a function that describes the behavior of a class. Including a method in a class does not guarantee an implementation of the method. The Implemented qualifier is attached to the method to indicate that an implementation is available for the class. A method is also a function included in a WMI interface.
A query expressed as a direct method call to one or more standard query operators.
Microsoft Foundation Class library
A library of C++ classes that forms an object-oriented wrapper around large portions of the Windows API and provides a framework on which to build applications.
Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL)
A language used as the output of a number of compilers and as the input to a just-in-time (JIT) compiler. The common language runtime includes a JIT compiler for converting MSIL to native code. See also: JIT compilation.
Any code placed on a central server that is meant to be downloaded and run by multiple clients. Mobile code can be distributed using Web servers, FTP servers, file shares, and so on. Typically, users run mobile code from the intranet and Internet zones.
mobile user control
An ASP.NET mobile control derived from the System.Web.UI.MobileControls.MobileUserControl class. User controls provide containers for custom controls built from other ASP.NET mobile controls. See also: ASP.NET mobile controls.
A loadable unit, which can contain type declarations and type implementations. The module contains enough information to enable the common language runtime to locate all implementation bits when the module is loaded. The format for modules is an extension of the Windows portable executable (PE) file format. When deployed, a module is always contained in an assembly. See also: assembly, portable executable (PE) file.
A component that can be registered as part of the ASP.NET request lifecycle and that can read or change the request or response as it is processed. HttpModules are often used to perform special tasks that need to monitor each request, such as security or site statistics.
See other term: Managed Object Format
In WMI, a short name that locates a namespace, class, or instance. The moniker “winmgmts:” is used when connecting to WMI in script languages or Visual Basic.
See other term: Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL)
See other term: mapping specification language (MSL)
The ability to target code to specific versions (2.0, 3.0, or 3.5) of the .NET Framework.
Running several processes in rapid sequence within a single program, regardless of which logical method of multitasking is being used by the operating system. Because the user’s sense of time is much slower than the processing speed of a computer, multitasking appears to be simultaneous, even though only one task at a time can use a computer processing cycle.
A logical naming scheme for grouping related types. The .NET Framework uses a hierarchical naming scheme for grouping types into logical categories of related functionality, such as the ASP.NET technology or remoting functionality. Design tools can use namespaces to make it easier for developers to browse and reference types in their code. A single assembly can contain types whose hierarchical names have different namespace roots, and a logical namespace root can span multiple assemblies. In the .NET Framework, a namespace is a logical design-time naming convenience, whereas an assembly establishes the name scope for types at run time. See also: assembly.
Any ASP.NET control that implements the INamingContainer interface. This is a marker interface that enables a control to create a new naming scope under itself so that ID attributes assigned to its child controls are unique within the entire ASP.NET page that contains the control.
Code that has been compiled to processor-specific machine code.
native image generation (NGen)
Pre-compilation technology for managed code that compiles Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) to native code on the end-user computer prior to application run time. It is an alternative to JIT compilation. See also: JIT compilation, Microsoft intermediate language.
In the ADO.NET Entity Framework, a property of entity types that uses an association to reference related entities.
A type defined within the scope of another type. A nested type is typically used for encapsulating the implementation details of the top-level type.
See other term: native image generation
An indication of the relative performance of an algorithm. An algorithm or the method that implements it is said to be O(1) if its execution is a constant, O(log n) if its execution is proportional to the natural log of n, or O(n) if its execution is proportional to n. O notation is frequently used as a way to compare the relative performance of operations on collections, in which case n is usually the number of elements in the collection.
See other term: Object Relational Designer
A language construct in Visual Basic and C# that enables initialization of an object’s member variables in the same statement in which the object is created.
A formatted string used to access namespaces, classes, and instances. Each object on the system has a unique path that identifies it locally or over the network. Object paths are conceptually similar to Uniform Resource Locators (URL).
Object Relational Designer
A tool that provides a visual design surface for creating LINQ to SQL entity classes and associations (relationships) based on objects in a database. The Object Relational Designer also provides functionality to map stored procedures and functions to System.Data.Linq.DataContext methods for returning data and manipulating entity classes.
Services provided by the ADO.NET Entity Framework that enable application code to operate on entities in terms of .NET Framework objects.
A way to transfer and share information between applications by pasting information created in one application into a document created in another application, such as a spreadsheet or word processing file.
open generic type
A constructed generic type in which one or more of the generic type arguments substituted for its generic type parameters is a type parameter of an enclosing generic type or method. Open generic types cannot be instantiated. See also: closed generic type, constructed generic type, generics, generic type argument, generic type parameter.
The ability to define custom behaviors for predefined operators when applied to user-defined types. For example, you can overload the “+” operator in a user-defined class MyClass so that myClass1 + myClass2 produces a meaningful result.
A statement that enables the use of local type inference in declaring variables.
The way of specifying the alignment of an item, such as a control.
The placing of ToolStrip items on a menu that is accessible by clicking the overflow chevron. Overflow is necessary when the ToolStrip or form is resized to less than the sum of the widths of ToolStrip items in normal view.
A rendering mode in which you take responsibility for drawing a control, rather than relying on the control’s default rendering behavior.
The space between the edge of a control and a control’s contents. Padding differs from margin, which represents the space between controls on a form or page.
The coordinate system used by a drawing surface, such as a form or control.
A mechanism that automatically separates the content in ASP.NET mobile Web Forms into smaller groups of rendered pages that are targeted to fit a specific device. It also renders user interface elements that can be used to browse to other pages.
See other term: generic type parameter constraint
A type whose definition has placeholders for actual types that the user specifies when creating and using instances of the type. C++ templates and common language runtime generics are examples of parameterized types. See also: generics.
parameterless constructor constraint
A restriction on a generic type parameter, such that types substituted for that type parameter must provide a parameterless or default constructor. See also: generics, generic type parameter, generic type parameter constraint.
A control in the Web Parts control set that inherits directly or indirectly from the System.Web.UI.WebControls.WebParts.Part class and is used to create the primary user interface of Web Parts applications. See also: Web Parts control set.
A partial type is a type that is defined in such a way that a single type, such as a class, can be be split into multiple files.
In ASP.NET, the process of refreshing only a region of a Web page during an asynchronous postback. This is typically accomplished by using UpdatePanel controls. Partial-page rendering is an important feature of AJAX technology.
See other term: portable executable (PE) file
A property in a performance class that stores performance data. The counter is a member of a performance object in the original performance library.
In WMI, an event consumer whose registration lasts until it is explicitly cancelled. See also: event consumer, temporary consumer.
A class that defines access to a resource or defines an identity by supporting authorization checks. See also: permission object.
An instance of a permission class that represents access rights to resources or identity. A permission object can be used to specify a request, a demand, or a grant of permission. See also: permission class.
A feature of the Web Parts control set that enables end users to personalize (modify) Web Parts controls and save the personalized settings. Personalization can apply to individual users (user scope) or to all users (shared scope). See also: Web Parts controls, Web Parts control set.
The state of a Web Parts page that determines the range of users to which personalization changes apply. The WebPartManager control determines the personalization scope for a Web Parts page. The PersonalizationScope enumeration provides two possible scopes (Shared and User) that a page can be in at any given time. In shared scope, personalization changes made to shared controls apply to all users. In user scope, personalization changes made to shared and per-user controls apply only to the specific user. See also: personalization, Web Parts page.
A dynamic Web Parts control that can be personalized and permanently deleted from a page for an individual user only. A per-user control appears on the page only when the page is in user scope. Note that a per-user control can have properties that are both user-scope and shared-scope for personalization purposes. See also: personalization, Web Parts controls.
In the .NET Framework add-in programming model, represents a linear communication model of segments that exchange data between an add-in and its host. Starting from the host end, the pipeline has the following sequence of segments: host, host view of the add-in, host-side adapter, contract, add-in-side adapter, add-in view, and the add-in. See also: add-in, add-in-side adapter, add-in view, contract, host, host-side adapter, host view of the add-in, segment.
The functionality provided by the common language runtime to enable managed code to call unmanaged native DLL entry points.
portable executable (PE) file
The file format used for executable programs and for files to be linked together to form executable programs.
The process in which a Web page sends data back to the same page on the server.
In ASP.NET, the process of submitting an entire Web site to a compiler. The resulting Web site output runs without needing to be compiled on first request and does not require source code to be deployed to a production server.
primary interop assembly
An assembly containing definitions of COM types that is distributed and digitally signed by the author of the COM component. Visual Studio uses a registered primary interop assembly by default when a developer references a type in the corresponding type library. See also: assembly, interop assembly.
In .NET Framework security, represents the identity and role of a user, and acts on a user’s behalf. See also: role.
An assembly that is available only to clients in the same directory structure as the assembly. See also: assembly, shared assembly.
private view state
State information that is written as a hidden field, such as the form that is currently active or the pagination information for a form.
In ASP.NET, a property that can store information for each unique user and that is managed automatically by ASP.NET. When users visit the site, ASP.NET associates each user with a unique ID and can then read and write profile property values for the user.
In Visual Studio’s solution explorer, the node in the treeview with the name of the current project.
In the .NET Framework, a class member that is like a public field, but that includes features such as versioning, encapsulation, and the ability to execute additional logic through get and set accessor methods. See also: encapsulation, field, version policy.
In WMI, a name/value pair that describes a unit of data for a class. Property values must have a valid Managed Object Format (MOF) data type.
In a Web Parts connection, a server control that sends data to a consumer control. A provider can be a WebPart control or any type of server control, but must be designed to function as a provider. A provider must have a special callback method marked with a ConnectionProviderAttribute attribute in the source code. This method provides data to consumer controls in the form of an interface instance. See also: connection point, consumer, Web Parts connection.
In WMI, a COM server that communicates with managed objects to access data and event notifications from a variety of sources, such as the system registry or an SNMP device. Providers forward this information to the CIM Object Manager for integration and interpretation. See also: CIM Object Manager.
In WMI, a modifier containing information that describes a class, instance, property, method, or parameter. Qualifiers are defined by the Common Information Model (CIM), by the CIM Object Manager, and by developers. See also: CIM Object Manager, Common Information Model.
An expression in the form of a query expression or method-based query (or a combination of the two) that extracts information from a data source.
A single clause of a query expression. There are several different query clauses, each identified by its initiating query keyword. For instance, the “from/From clause” refers to clauses like “From c In customers” in Visual Basic, or “from c in customers” in C#.
An expression that operates on and can produce enumerable types. The expression is composed of clauses that are similar to SQL clauses and that are based on language keywords.
The set of contextual keywords in C# and Visual Basic that designate the query clauses of a query expression. For example, from, join, and select are query keywords in C#, and From, Join, and Select are query keywords in Visual basic.
The set of standard query operators that is available in all LINQ queries, and the rules that define the structure of a LINQ query.
A variable that stores a query, as opposed to the results of a query. A query, however it is implemented, is essentially a set of instructions for how to retrieve a set of data from a data source.
The type of the query variable in a LINQ query. The type of the variable that represents the data source is also a queryable type. A queryable type can be implicitly or explicitly typed, but in either case it must be a generic IEnumerable or IQueryable type.
Quick Info tooltip
A yellow popup-box that displays the complete declaration for any identifier in your code when you hover over an identifier. XML doc comments on the identifier are displayed in Quick Info.
A condition in which two or more threads can reach and execute a block of code, and the program outcome changes radically depending on which thread reaches the code first. A race condition is benign if all outcomes are valid. However, race conditions can be associated with synchronization errors that can result in one process interfering with another process and possibly introduce a vulnerability. Frequently, a potential outcome of a race condition leaves the program in an unstable or invalid state. See also: synchronization.
The sharing by ToolStrips of horizontal space when docked top or bottom, or of vertical space when docked left or right.
The variable that provides access to each element in a data source in a LINQ query.
See other term: runtime callable wrapper (RCW)
A data type that is represented by a reference (similar to a pointer) to the type’s actual value. If a reference type is assigned to a variable, that variable references (or “points to”) the original value. No copy is made. Reference types comprise classes, interfaces, delegates, and boxed value types. See also: value type.
A WMI Query Language statement that supports the traversal of associations programmatically by retrieving all association instances that refer to a particular source instance. See also: ASSOCIATORS OF, GROUP, HAVING, ISA, SELECT, WHERE, WITHIN.
An element of an SSDL schema that specifies the direction of an association with FromRole and ToRole attributes. Corresponds to a CSDL navigation property. See also: conceptual schema definition language, store schema definition language.
The process of obtaining information about assemblies and the types defined within them, and creating, invoking, and accessing type instances at run time.
A concise and flexible notation for finding and replacing patterns of text. The notation comprises two basic character types: literal (normal) text characters, which indicate text that must exist in the target string, and metacharacters, which indicate the text that can vary in the target string. You can use regular expressions to quickly parse large amounts of text to find specific character patterns; extract, edit, replace, or delete text substrings; or to add the extracted strings to a collection in order to generate a report.
The logical model used to define the tables, columns, and constraints in a relational database.
The process of communication between different operating system processes, regardless of whether they are on the same computer. The .NET Framework remoting system is an architecture designed to simplify communication between objects living in different application domains, whether on the same computer or not, and between different contexts, whether in the same application domain or not. See also: application domain, context.
The painting of ToolStrips and ToolStrip items that are in accordance with selectable options. These options provide custom, operating system-compliant, or Microsoft Office-compliant themes, user interface elements, and colors schemes.
Optionally specified permissions in an assembly that represent the minimum required, optionally desired, and always refused permissions for all code in the assembly. If there is no request, the code is granted the maximum that security policy allows. See also: security policy.
Any nonexecutable data that is logically deployed with an application. A resource might be displayed in an application as error messages or as part of the user interface. Resources can contain data in a number of forms, including strings, images, and persisted objects.
The Ribbon is part of the new Microsoft Office Fluent user interface (UI). In Dashboard Designer, It consists of contextual tools for creating, editing, and exporting dashboards and their elements.
right to left (RTL)
A property on forms and controls that causes form layout and text to start on the right-hand side of the screen and proceed toward the left-hand side. The property is used primarily when an application displays its text in a language script that reads from right to left, such as Hebrew or Arabic.
In .NET Framework security: A named set of principals that have the same privileges with respect to security. See also: principal.
In the ADO.NET Entity Framework: The name given to each End of an association to clarify the semantics of the relationship. See also: End.
In .NET Framework security, the process of determining whether a principal is allowed to perform a requested action. Authorization occurs after authentication and uses information about the principal’s identity and its associated role to determine the resources a principal can access. See also: authentication, authorization, principal, role.
A sequence of Web Forms stages that begins when a user action requires processing on the server. When this occurs, a form must be sent (posted) to the server, processed, and returned to the browser.
See other term: right to left (RTL)
See other term: common language runtime
runtime callable wrapper (RCW)
A .NET Framework object that acts as a proxy for a reference-counted COM object.
A specific version policy that requests a given assembly be run with the exact version of its dependencies that it was compiled against.
A .NET Framework assembly containing resources specific to a given language. Using satellite assemblies, you can place the resources for difference languages in different assemblies, and the correct assembly is loaded into memory only if the user elects to view that application in that language.
In WMI, a collection of class definitions that describe managed objects in a specific environment.
A data structure that contains the security information for a securable object, such as a share, file, sink, or event filter. A security descriptor identifies the object’s owner and primary group. It also identifies who can have access to the resource and what type of access.
An unintentionally unprotected entry point into an otherwise restricted computer, component, application, or other online resource.
security identifier (SID)
A data structure that identifies user, group, and computer accounts. Every account on a network is issued a unique SID when the account is first created. SIDs are used in access control (the process of comparing a SID to a resource security descriptor that specifies which SIDs can use the resource).
The active policy established by the administrator that programmatically generates granted permissions for all managed code based on the code’s requested permissions. Code that requires more permissions than policy will grant is not allowed to run. See also: requested permissions.
In the .NET Framework add-in programming model, a part of the pipeline. The following are segments of the pipeline: host, host view of the add-in, host-side adapter, contract, add-in-side adapter, add-in view, and the add-in. See also: add-in, add-in-side adapter, add-in view, contract, host, host-side adapter, host view of the add-in, pipeline.
A WMI Query Language statement that is used to retrieve information. SQL supports queries across multiple tables, but WQL supports only single class queries. See also: ASSOCIATORS OF, GROUP, HAVING, ISA, REFERENCES OF, WHERE, WITHIN.
A method call that returns immediately and allows the application or script to enumerate the returned objects as a collection. A semisynchronous method call does not require setting up an object sink, but an asynchronous method call does require setting up an object sink. See also: asynchronous method.
In the context of LINQ, an instance of a queryable type.
The process of converting an object’s state information into a form that can be stored or transported. During serialization, an object writes its current state to temporary or persistent storage. Later, the object can be recreated by reading, or deserializing, the object’s state from storage.
See other term: ASP.NET server control
In ASP.NET, a variable store created on the server for the current user; each user maintains a separate Session state on the server. Session state is typically used to store user-specific information between postbacks. See also: postback.
When you compare two sets, the set difference is the set of elements in the first set that do not appear in the second set.
When you compare two sets, the set intersection is the collection of elements in the first set that also appear in the second set.
When you compare two sets, the set union is the collection of all elements in both sets.
An assembly that can be referenced by more than one application. An assembly must be explicitly built to be shared by giving it a cryptographically strong name. See also: assembly, private assembly, strong name.
A Web Parts control that can appear on a Web page and be personalized when the page is in either shared or user-level personalization scope. Note that a shared control can have properties that are both user-scope and shared-scope for personalization purposes. See also: personalization, personalization scope, Web Parts controls.
See other term: strong name
See other term: security identifier
The ability to install and use multiple versions of an assembly in isolation at the same time. Side-by-side execution can apply to applications and components as well as to the .NET Framework. Allowing assemblies to coexist and to execute simultaneously on the same computer is essential to support robust versioning in the common language runtime.
The list of types involved in the definition of a method, field, property, or local variable. For a method, the signature includes its name, number of parameters and their types, the type it returns (if any), and its calling convention (default or vararg). The signature for a property is similar to that of a method. The signature for fields and local variables is simply their type (for example, array [0..5] of int).
In ASP.NET Web sites, the process of displaying controls such as menus, a tree view, or SiteMapPath (breadcrumb) controls that assist users in finding pages of interest. Site navigation is typically driven from a sitemap. See also: sitemap.
A file or other store that describes the logical layout of a Web site (as distinct from the physical layout of pages). Sitemaps are used by site navigation controls to display navigation using a menu, tree view, or SiteMapPath (breadcrumb) control. See also: site navigation.
A file containing one or more control properties that define how the controls should look. Skin files are part of ASP.NET themes. See also: theme.
A glyph attached to a control or component that exposes commonly performed tasks.
Visual guides that the Windows Forms Designer draws to aid in the placement and alignment of controls.
A simple, XML-based protocol for exchanging structured and type information on the Web. The protocol contains no application or transport semantics, which makes it highly modular and extensible.
split stack layout
A layout style in which each end of the ToolStrip is the base of a stack, with some items stacked at the head and other items stacked at the tail. Items are stacked from the ends in.
See other term: store schema definition language (SSDL)
A layout style in which adjacent items align against each other as though they were stacked, always taking up the free space in between the items.
In WMI, one of several preinstalled permanent consumers that perform an action, such as sending an e-mail or writing to a log when configured by a managed object format (MOF) file or a script. See also: permanent consumer.
standard query operators
The methods that form the LINQ pattern. They can be used to query any data source for which a LINQ provider is available.
A Web Parts control that is part of the declarative “page persistence” markup in an .aspx page; it exists only as part of the .aspx page, not in a personalization store like a dynamic Web Parts control. Unlike a dynamic control, a static control is added to an .aspx page on every request. A static Web Parts control is always a shared control, which means that although users can both personalize and “close” the control when the page is in either shared or user scope, the control can never be permanently deleted. See also: personalization, personalization scope, shared control, Web Parts control.
Specifies the amount by which the loop counter is incremented each time a For…Next loop is traversed. In the following example, “Step 2” is the step clause: For loopCounter = 1 to 100 Step 2
store schema definition language (SSDL)
An XML-based language that is used to define the entity types, associations, entity containers, entity sets, and association sets of a storage model, often corresponding to a database schema.
The flow of data from a source to a single receiver that flows through a channel, as opposed to packets, which may be addressed and routed independently, possibly to multiple recipients.
The process of adjusting the size of an item to fit its container. The term “stretch” is typically used when referring to an image contained in a control.
A name that consists of an assembly’s identity-its simple text name, version number, and culture information (if provided)-strengthened by a public key and a digital signature generated over the assembly. Because the assembly manifest contains file hashes for all the files that constitute the assembly implementation, it is sufficient to generate the digital signature over just the one file in the assembly that contains the assembly manifest. Assemblies with the same strong name are expected to be identical. See also: assembly, assembly manifest.
A user-defined value type. Like a class, structures can contain constructors, constants, fields, methods, properties, indexers, operators, and nested types. Unlike classes, however, structures do not support inheritance. See also: class, field, indexer, nested type, property, value type.
In ClickOnce, a regularly-scheduled, automated check for application updates. Subscriptions are defined in the ClickOnce deployment manifest.
In multithreading, the coordination of the activities of multiple threads through locks and signaling mechanisms so that program data is protected from corruption, and deadlocks and race conditions do not occur. See also: deadlock, race condition.
In WMI, a class that the CIM Object Manager defines to support core features such as event notification, security, and localization. A system class is automatically defined in each namespace. See also: CIM Object Manager.
In WMI, a property that the CIM Object Manager defines to provide information that applies to each class (for example, name, derivation, and namespace). See also: CIM Object Manager.
A method of designing a form in which all elements are positioned in cells within a table. Sometimes called “grid layout”.
A method of modeling a type hierarchy in a database that includes the attributes of all the types in the hierarchy in one table.
A method of modeling a type hierarchy in a database that uses multiple tables with one-to-one relationships to model the various types.
In ASP.NET, a declarative page fragment that is used to provide a visual interface for a templated ASP.NET server control. A template contains presentation elements that include literal text, HTML, and data-binding expressions, as well as declarative syntax elements that represent ASP.NET server controls. A template can be persisted as a text file with an .ascx extension. See also: ASP.NET server control, templated control.
In ASP.NET mobile controls, a markup language construct associated with controls and created with the <DeviceSpecific> and <Choice> tags. It is used to customize output for specific types of hardware devices. See also: templated control, template set.
The design-time access point to the Items Collection Editor for a ToolStrip, MenuStrip, ContextMenuStrip, or StatusStrip control.
In ASP.NET mobile controls, a collection of templates associated with a templated control. See also: template, templated control.
In ASP.NET, an ASP.NET server control that does not itself provide a visual interface but allows its users (page developers) to supply templates that provide a visual interface. When the ASP.NET page parser encounters a templated control, it parses the control’s template and dynamically creates child controls that supply the visual interface. The Repeater and DataList ASP.NET server controls are templated controls. The DataGrid control is not strictly a templated control, but uses templates to customize its user interface. See also: ASP.NET server control, template.
In ASP.NET mobile controls, a control that supports one or more templates. A single templated control can refer to multiple sets of templates, where each template set is defined through device-specific criteria. See also: template, template set.
In WMI, a consumer that receives event notifications only while the consumer is active. See also: permanent consumer.
In ASP.NET mobile controls, a mechanism that allows device adapters to write their output through an object. A text writer object is created from the TextWriter base class. See also: device adapter.
In ASP.NET, a collection of control properties, stylesheets, and images that can be applied as a unit to a page or Web site to define an overall appearance.
See other term: table-per-hierarchy (TPH)
See other term: table-per-type (TPT)
In ASP.NET, the process of capturing and displaying debugging information about a Web page as the page is running. Tracing information includes HTTP headers and control state. You can display trace output in the page or in a separate trace viewer.
The file used in ClickOnce applications to grant an elevated level of trust to a managed application. Trust licenses must be signed by trust license issuers, which must be installed on a client computer prior to deploying the ClickOnce application.
See other term: generic type argument
A process in which the compiler determines the data type of a local variable that has been declared without an explicit data type declaration. The type is inferred from the initial value provided for the variable.
See other term: generic type parameter
type parameter list
See other term: generic type parameter list
The ability for languages and classes to exchange information through commonly agreed upon definitions and usage patterns for types.
See other term: common type system
See other term: Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration (UDDI)
The conversion of an object instance to a value type. See also: boxing, value type.
Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)
A number or name that uniquely identifies an element or attribute. URIs include both Uniform Resource Names (URNs) and Uniform Resource Locators (URLs). URIs are a general scheme for locating resources on the Internet that focuses more on the resource and less on the location. In theory, a URI could find the closest copy of a mirrored document or locate a document moved from one site to another. Although it is expected that URNs will become more common in the future, when discussing XML today, URIs are URLs in nearly all cases.
Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration (UDDI)
A platform-independent framework functioning like a directory (similar to a telephone book) that provides a way to locate and register Web services on the Internet. The UDDI specification calls for three elements: white pages, which provide business contact information; yellow pages, which organize Web services into categories (for example, credit card authorization services); and green pages, which provide detailed technical information about individual services. The UDDI also contains an operational registry, which is available today.
Code that is executed directly by the operating system, outside the common language runtime environment. Unmanaged code must provide its own garbage collection, type checking, security support, and so on, unlike managed code, which receives these services from the common language runtime. See also: managed code.
A function that is compiled to machine code (such as x86 or x64) as opposed to intermediate language (IL).
In ASP.NET, a server control that is authored declaratively using the same syntax as an ASP.NET page and is saved as a text file with an .ascx extension. User controls allow page functionality to be partitioned and reused. Upon first request, the page framework parses a user control into a class that derives from System.Web.UI.UserControl and compiles that class into an assembly, which it reuses on subsequent requests. User controls are easy to develop due to their page-style authoring and deployment without prior compilation.
In Windows Forms, a composite control that provides consistent behavior and user interface within or across applications. The user control can be local to one application or added to a library and compiled into a DLL for use by multiple applications.
validation server controls
A set of server controls, included with ASP.NET, that verify user input. The input is checked as it comes from HTML server controls and Web server controls (for example, a Web page form) against programmer-defined requirements. Validation controls perform input checking in server code. If the user is working with a browser that supports DHTML, the validation controls can also perform validation using client script. See also ASP.NET server control, HTML server control, Web server control.
See other term: validation server controls
A data type that is represented by the type’s actual value. If a value type is assigned to a variable, that variable is given a fresh copy of the value. (This is in contrast to a reference type, where assignment does not create a copy.) Value types are usually created on a method’s stack frame, rather than in the garbage-collected heap. A value type can be boxed, which is a process that creates a corresponding reference type. See also: boxing, reference type, unboxing.
A user interface element in a Web Parts application that an end user can click to perform actions such as closing, minimizing, restoring, editing, or deleting a Web Parts control. Developers can also add custom verbs to controls. Web Parts verbs are based on the System.Web.UI.WebControls.WebParts.WebPartVerb class. See Web Parts controls.
A menu in the title bar of a part control that contains various verbs (UI actions that apply to an individual control) such as Close, Minimize, Restore, Delete, Export, Edit, Help, and others, as well as custom verbs implemented by developers. See part control, verb.
A part of the compilation process in which code is checked for conformance to a specific set of rules defined to allow proof of certain security requirements. The common language runtime can verify Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL). See also: Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL).
The rules that specify which version of dependent assemblies to bind to. Version polices are expressed using configuration files.
A field in an ASP.NET Web page where you can store settings that need to be preserved between postbacks. Also used to mean control state. See also: control state, postback.
virtual-mode data binding
A type of data binding in which a data-bound control retrieves only as many rows from the database as the user will be able to see on the screen.
Visual Studio SDK
The software development kit that VSIP partners use to extend the Visual Studio integrated development environment
Wireless Application Protocol. A standard protocol for providing Internet communications and advanced telephony services on phones, pagers, PDAs, and other wireless terminals.
See other term: Web-based Enterprise Management (WBEM)
See other term: Windows Communication Foundation
The ASP.NET page framework, which consists of programmable Web pages (called Web Forms pages) that contain reusable server controls. See also ASP.NET server control.
The total ASP.NET Web Parts feature set.
Web Parts connection
An association between two server controls residing in a WebPartZoneBase zone that enables them to share data, with one control acting as the provider of data and the other control acting as the consumer. A connection is encapsulated within a System.Web.UI.WebControls.WebParts.WebPartConnection object. See also: consumer, provider, zone.
Web Parts control set
The integrated set of ASP.NET software components that provide personalization, structural components such as zones and the WebPartManager control, Web Parts UI controls, and other components for building Web Parts controls and applications. See also: personalization, Web Parts controls, zone.
Web Parts controls
A way of referring generally to any of the various types of controls in the Web Parts control set. See also: Web Parts control set.
Web Parts page
A normal .aspx page that includes the Web Parts controls that are necessary to personalize the page. A Web Parts page minimally requires a WebPartManager control, one or more zones, and one or more Web Parts controls. See also: personalization, Web Parts controls, zone.
Web server control
An ASP.NET server control that belongs to the System.Web.UI.WebControls namespace. Web server controls are richer and more abstract than HTML server controls. A Web server control has an asp tag prefix on an ASP.NET page, such as <asp:Button runat=”server” />. See also: ASP.NET server control, HTML server control, validation server controls.
Web Services Description Language (WSDL)
An XML-based contract language for describing network services offered by a server. See also: Extensible Markup Language (XML).
Web-based Enterprise Management (WBEM)
An initiative undertaken by the Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF) to provide enterprise system managers with a standard solution for management. WMI is the Microsoft implementation of the WBEM initiative for Windows operating systems.
A clause in the WQL SELECT statement that constrains a query so that subsets of class definitions or class instances can be selected. WHERE clauses can also be used to limit the scope of event notifications. See also: ASSOCIATORS OF, GROUP, HAVING, ISA, REFERENCES OF, SELECT, WITHIN.
Windows Communication Foundation
A Microsoft Windows Vista managed technology that is used to build and manage service-oriented systems.
Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) application service
In ASP.NET, an application service such as authentication, profile properties, or roles, that can be accessed by any non-ASP.NET application that can read and send messages in SOAP 1.1 format. WCF services enable different types of applications to share common data, such as user credentials for logging in. See also: application service.
A rich Windows client library.
Windows Forms Designer
A tool that enables the rapid development of Windows-based applications. It allows you to add controls to a form, arrange them, and write code for their events.
Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI)
WMI is the Microsoft extension to the Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF) Web-based Enterprise Management (WBEM) initiative, and provides a set of interfaces for access to components that provide management capabilities to an enterprise. See also: Web-based Enterprise Management (WBEM).
Windows Presentation Foundation
A Microsoft Windows Vista managed technology that enhances visual effects and the display of application user interfaces and multimedia contents.
A clause in the WQL SELECT statement that constrains the granularity of event delivery time, and supports polling for events when no event provider is available. See also: ASSOCIATORS OF, GROUP, HAVING, ISA, REFERENCES OF, SELECT, WHERE.
See other term: Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI)
A template for a type of managed object. WMI classes define the basic units of management. For example, the Win32_LogicalDisk class is a template for all logical disks that occur in the Windows environment. In this case, WMI uses the class template to generate an instance of Win32_LogicalDisk for each disk installed on a computer.
An XML-based markup language used to specify content and the user interface for narrowband devices, including cellular phones and pagers. WML is part of WAP. See also: WAP.
The coordinates used to model a particular graphic world.
The transformation that converts world coordinates to page coordinates. See also: page coordinates, world coordinates.
See other term: Windows Presentation Foundation
See other term: Web Services Description Language (WSDL)
See other term: Extensible Application Markup Language (XAML)
See other term: Extensible Markup Language (XML)
XML Schema (XSD)
The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standard language used for creating XML Schema documents. The XML Schema contains two parts: a set of predefined types (for example, string, dateTime, decimal), and an XML language for defining new types (for example, complexType, minOccurs, element).
XML Schema Document
A specification that describes the complex types used in a Web method and thereby enables interoperability between clients and Web services built on different platforms by adhering to a common type system, as defined by the W3C.
XML Web services
Units of application logic providing data and services to other applications. Applications access XML Web services using standard Web protocols and data formats such as HTTP, XML, and SOAP, independent of how each XML Web service is implemented. XML Web services combine the best aspects of both component-based development and the Web, and they are a cornerstone of the Microsoft .NET programming model.
A region that contains Web Parts controls on a page, and provides layout management and a consistent UI for the contained controls. A zone in the Web Parts control set is a composite control that contains other controls and is rendered as an HTML table. All Web Parts zones inherit from System.Web.UI.WebControls.WebParts.WebZone. See also: Web Parts controls, Web Parts control set.